It is believed that the development of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis played a crucial role in the initial colonisation of land by plants and in the evolution of the vascular plants.Both paleobiological and molecular evidence indicate that AM is an ancient symbiosis that originated at least 460 million years ago.Vacuolar dihydroxy B-ring flavonoids have been reported to serve as co-substrates for vacuolar peroxidases to reduce H escape from the chloroplast, following the depletion of ascorbate peroxidase activity.Antioxidant flavonoids may effectively control key steps of cell growth and differentiation, thus acting regulating the development of the whole plant and individual organs.► Stress-responsive dihydroxy B-ring-substituted flavonoids are effective antioxidants.
It is stable at acidic p H, but is unstable in alkaline solutions.
The genes that govern the biosynthesis of antioxidant flavonoids are present in liverworts and mosses and are mostly up-regulated as a consequence of severe stress.
This suggests that the antioxidant flavonoid metabolism is a robust trait of terrestrial plants.
An arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (plural mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas, a.k.a.
endomycorrhiza, AM fungi, or AMF) is a type of mycorrhiza in which the fungus penetrates the cortical cells of the roots of a vascular plant.